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RUDOLF BAUER, No. 57, "BLUE BALLS' 



SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM COLLECTION 
OF NON-OBJECTIVE PAINTINGS 



ON EXHIBITION FROM 
MARCH 1, 1936 THROUGH APRIL 12, 1936 



PRESENTED BY THE 

CAROLINA ART ASSOCIATION 

AT THE 

GIBBES MEMORIAL ART GALLERY 

CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA 



This exhibition of Mr. Solomon R. Guggenheim's collection is an event of outstanding im- 
portance in the history of the Carolina Art Association. Although we are dedicated to the 
preservation and study of the eighteenth and nineteenth century art of the state, our aim is 
also to present the art of the present. This exhibition marks our first accomplishment of note 
toward this objective and we are grateful to Mr. Guggenheim for making it possible. 

We are proud of being selected as the first to exhibit this collection and in doing so to pre- 
sent the first comprehensive exhibition of non-objective painting in this country. Charleston 
was once a leader among communities of cultural achievement and has always been noted 
for its traditions of culture. It is significant that it now presents an art which looks to the future. 
There are many cities who might reason that they should have been selected, but the reasons 
are obvious; there are many collectors who would have been influenced by these reasons 
and their desire for certain response would have been assured; there are also museums who 
would have refused the exhibition and been justified by narrow concepts; it is our hope that 
our future will vindicate an extraordinary collector's vision. 

The Baroness Hilla Rebay, who organized the Guggenheim collection, has graciously 
augmented its exhibition with works from her collection. We are greatly indebted to the 
Baroness who has given her services as director of the exhibition and compiler of this catalog. 

ROBERT N. S. WHITELAW, Director 

Carolina Art Association 



Artists are listed alphabetically, the paintings chronologically. 

Biographies are given at the end. 

The Non-Objective Paintings number 1-108. 

The Paintings with an Object number 109-128, and were collected 

and are included in this exhibition to present outstanding artists 

whose works led to non-objectivity. 

Titles have been translated except where the translation was 

meaningless. Titles have not been given except by the artists and, 

as the paintings were frequently untitled, all of the Non-Objective 

Paintings are illustrated. 

The artists' numbers, whenever they were known, have been given 

in brackets with the year. 

Dimensions of the paintings are given in inches with the height 

first. 



DEFINITION OF NON-OBJECTIVE PAINTING 

For thousands of years astronomers, as well as laymen, believed that the earth was the 
center of the universe, around which all other planets revolved. Copernicus and Galileo 
demonstrated the fallacy of this theory. For an even longer period of time there was a belief 
that the object in painting was the center around which art must move. Artists of the Twen- 
tieth Century have discovered that the object is just as far from being the center of art as 
the earth is from being the focal point of the universe. In conceiving his hypothesis Coper- 
nicus had to visualize the universe helio-centrically, as seen from the sun, and not merely 
geo-centrically, as seen from the earth itself. Placing his vision outside the earth, he opened 
enormous vistas and brought to light new viewpoints with far-reaching consequences. The 
discovery of the possibility of placing oneself outside all former viewpoints concerning art 
is of equal importance to humanity. 

The pictures of non-objectivity are the key to a world of unmaterialistic elevation. Edu- 
cating humanity to respect and appreciate spiritual worth will unite nations more firmly 
than any league of nations. The intuitive vision of this education will be followed by intel- 
lectual explanation which will satisfy even the most materialistic opposition. New contacts 
and new values, established by the rhythm of the spirit rather than by the intellect, will aid 
the progress of culture. 

In the development of the world new epochs are brought about by geniuses who at once 
reach a peak of achievement far above the periods either before or after them. Their out- 
standing knowledge of an overthrown period and of the persistent necessity for improve- 
ment gives them a far wider range of power and experience than any follower in the new 
epoch can acquire. After new ideals are established and acknowledged those who continue 
to promote them are not endangered by the insecurity that flayed their creators when they 
began such vital changes. The genius is distinctive for a tremendous belief in his vocation 
in spite of the unbelief of the whole world. 

Overcoming the past brings new life and fresh impetus to progress. Once change has 
been established it seems quite natural and is accepted by everyone as a useful rebirth 
of life, revealing new opportunities for development; but courage, strength and honesty are 
needed for the advance guard to overcome the resistance of those who desire no adjust- 
ment to vital improvements. Although new inventions frequently upset whole industries 
whose proprietors desperately fight changes, practical progress soon proves its own value 
and can no longer be delayed. It is much more difficult to establish spiritual progress, since 
only those who have already experienced it are convinced and new disciples must achieve 
all progress by their own spiritual growth. Only later generations are automatically ad- 
justed to a new epoch and its changes. For this reason prophetic geniuses always are and 
always will be isolated. Any mass adoration of them comes only from posterity. 

Artists who have the courage to represent the experiences of their own time can no 
longer believe in the reproduction of nature's pattern; they do not look to the styles of 
former centuries for inspiration. They are self-reliant and creative in expressing their extraor- 
dinary contacts with the eternal laws of the universe. The reproduction of objects has 
changed to the art of non-objectivity in which form, rhythm and color are used to create the 
absolute, with no intellectual relationship to the materialistic side of earth. 

In the art of painting we now have the greatest period the world has ever known be- 



cause spiritual joy in non-objective creation is at last overcoming the general pleasure in ma- 
terialistic, objective reproduction. 

In music we have already passed the greatest epoch; masters like Bach and Beethoven 
have never come again. Their universal scope has not been reached by any other musician 
and probably never will be. Their creations have never been equalled, not even by the 
masters themselves, because each work is unique in beauty, power and expression of 
rhythm and themes. Similarly it seems unlikely that painters like Bauer and Kandinsky will 
come again. The works of these artists are remarkable for rare beauty of workmanship, 
for technical originality, and for variation of invention; not even the artists themselves could 
equal or surpass their creations. 

The objective picture follows inspiration, the non-objective picture follows intuition; in- 
spiration may be hasty and time-bound, but intuition is gradual and timeless. While inspira- 
tional productions, using the individual language of a nation as a medium, are necessarily 
limited, intuitive creations are understandable to all nations alike through the universal 
language of art. 

The impelling urge to create is almost unknown to those who are not artists. This urge can 
be made visible or audible only by a real artist, expressing his inner experiences through tech- 
nical mediums. Through order, form and color his spiritual reaction receives visible expres- 
sion. The cosmic law is primary and essential. Inspiration is only secondary, responding to 
materialistic events. The non-objective picture might be thought of as a diagram of the soul, 
with increasing or decreasing curves depending upon the strength of the artist's emotions. 

Objective paintings offer entertainment; so do motion pictures and photographs. Indi- 
vidual styles in objective painting can vary widely, as objects can be reproduced in many 
different ways. But a reproductive picture cannot arouse intuitive feeling and a deep sense 
of rhythm because once its content is recognized and known it becomes static and unchang- 
ing. 

The realistic method of objective painting is the easiest to comprehend, for even a child 
can understand what is portrayed. The academic, realistic picture is a faithful copy of 
nature, the knowledge and skill with which it is executed determining its quality. Light and 
shadow, anatomy, perspective and proportion play important parts in realistic paintings; 
these principles can be learned by anyone who has ambition and patience. But form and 
color are not enough; motion, sound and smell would also have to be combined to do full 
justice to the ever-changing flow of nature's charms and to faithfully reproduce most earthly 
objects. 

In an impressionistic picture the painter reproduces a sensation or image he has received 
from nature. A few lines or colors can accomplish this. But the painter must use discrimination 
and choice in leaving out the unessential elements and in emphasizing the really important 
ones. The impressionistic painting sometimes attempts to convey the illusion of movement by 
portraying a sequence of positions telescoped into one picture, merely an intellectual pre- 
tense of the continuation of life-like movements. 

The expressionistic picture does not try to convey impressions of forms or movements. 
The painter uses even more artistic choice in emphasizing or exaggerating certain lines which 
strongly express what he considers worthwhile. Light, shadow and perspective cease to be 
of importance and may sometimes be harmful to the desired effect, which is the expression 
of the painter's personality rather than a statement of nature's charms. 

The futuristic picture gives a continuation of future intervals of movement united in one 




RUDOLF BAUER, No. 27, No. 28, No. 29, No. 30, "TETRAPTYCHON" Symphony in four movements. 

composition. One may see, for example, three or more views and turns of a head at the 
same time, or the legs of one dog in many positions, indicating movements which the eyes 
ought to follow. This is the first real attempt to portray an object which is moving rather than 
static, but it is still artificial, since living movement cannot be painted on a flat canvas. 

The cubistic picture uses the object still more freely, dividing the canvas space into cubes 
and creating inventive form combinations in which nature is still needed for inspiration. This 
is a highly creative type of reproduction, in which the forms of objects are developed into 
themes or in which visionary events are dramatically expressed, of which Chagall's work is 
a typical example. 

The abstract picture combines harmonizing themes almost to the point of free creation, 
but includes suggestion and reminiscence of an object to satisfy those who still look for one. 
Abstraction is unconsciously educating the eye for the beauty of motives in themselves, 
making us forget the object. 

All these different phases of reproductive, objective painting advocate the immovable 
"formideal". The eye takes in the entire picture at one time and the spirit cannot change or 
vary this view. In an absolute picture, which proclaims the movable "formideal" of the age 
to come, the spirit can move from theme to theme, from form to form. 

In a non-objective picture the artist uses neither light, shadow and perspective nor mem- 
ory and knowledge of nature. He merely uses the canvas to convey space relationship and 
enlivens it by creating a lovely theme. The chief beauty of a non-objective masterpiece lies 
in the perfect rhythm with which it presents themes so combined and related that the space 
used is completely organized. Rhythm is created by the length of pause in painting, as well 
as in music; to feel the order of this rhythm is to feel the order of the universe. The first 
statement of form or color commits the artist to further development in accordance with the 
rhythm and counter point of his creation; the first motif is followed by a second, which must 
continue the rhythm and fit in with the first theme. Having begun the picture, the creator 
continues until the space is completely, organically harmonized and all themes have been 
perfected and finished; the artist's concentration for continuity has to last until his intuition is 
exhausted. The finality in a great masterpiece of non-objectivity must be so convincing that 
it appears extremely simple to compose, yet it must be impossible to change any of its ele- 
ments without disturbing the rhythm and upsetting the balance. There must be no weak, un- 
finished or unbalanced spot. 

Non-objective pictures often take years to create, for intuition works slowly. No pattern 
provided by nature can be taken as an example, and no earthly memories can offer inspira- 
tion. Intuition is a convincing force, but it does not come when called upon; it must be waited 
for. It is often difficult to exercise self-control and wait for intuition, but the earnestness not to 



10 




RUDOLF BAUER, No. 46, No. 47, No. 48, "TRYPTICH" Symphony in three movements 



paint because one can paint but to paint because one must paint is part of the secret of genius. 

Though many artists are trying to achieve absolute creations in painting, they seldom 
achieve more than a pattern, or, at best, an excentrical, symmetrical decoration lacking all 
spiritual life. Only a few existing concentrical masterpieces contain that necessary, animated 
inner wealth and uplifting quality. Painters, like musicians, sometimes find one fine theme or 
perhaps several. But it is difficult to combine and develop them. The artist must eliminate the 
unessential, vary the possibilities of his themes, and culminate them in one grand climax 
before he has created a masterpiece of elevating beauty. 

There is a subtle but important distinction between an abstract form and an absolute 
form. Any object of the materialistic world can be abstracted or broken down into its com- 
ponent parts. The circle, the cube and the triangle are absolute forms; if they are changed 
or abstracted they lose their existence. Even the most dynamic abstract picture has some 
particular object as a starting point; the absolute picture contains no object. The form and 
space of an absolute picture are definitely cosmic, without materialistic meaning, and abso- 
lutely final. 

These forms of finality, cube, circle and triangle, may seem simple and easy to produce. 
But it is also easy to produce sound merely by touching the keyboard of a piano; any child 
can do that. Something more than a keyboard is needed to create a sonata or a fugue, and 
that something is the inventive mind of a creative genius. Similarly, a painting cannot be 
created merely by using the keyboard of absolute forms. Fidelity to the materialistic world 
seems very wonderful to many who consider it the sum total of art and believe that almost 
anyone can make circles and cubes. But these basic forms, like the keyboard of a piano, 
are to be used only as mediums for creating spiritual values and for conveying the uplifting 
rigid beauty of measure and line. 

Geometry also uses the absolute forms of the circle, triangle and cube to note and iden- 
tify calculations. It is evident that the use of the identical medium alone cannot create the same 
expression. In geometry these absolute forms are not used in their artistic sense; they are 
merely intellectual descriptions or visible definitions for calculated dimensions. Their com- 
bination lacks the elevation of beauty and cosmic order which creates the work of art. 

There is no chance or accidental charm in any creation. Form, space, theme and rhythm 
will show up in creative intuition without depending on the casual effects of technical fire- 
works. The more technique is subdued to the spirit, the more the sub-conscious charm of indi- 
vidual style is eliminated, the more dramatically strong will be the language of the painting. 
In non-objective art some painters hide lack of spirit with a brilliant display of colorful charm. 
Great masterpieces are so austere that they seem beyond all technical ability in their ex- 
treme finality and apparent simplicity. 

11 



Non-objective art cannot be truly explained with words. No one can transfer to some- 
one else his experiences with non-objective paintings. Each individual must have the time and 
opportunity to follow these creations with the eye. After art has been created through 
intuition, the intellect realizes the importance of the achievement and uses words to pro- 
claim it; but words, which are the definite tools of the mind, cannot express pure creation 
which has no literal meaning. 

The startling revelation of a non-objective picture comes at once to some people, open- 
ing new vistas of the inner world without the handicap of memory, knowledge or meaning. 
To many others this experience comes slowly. There are many people who frankly admit that 
they are not stirred by music, but there seems to be a queer inhibition against admitting that 
one does not feel the art of painting. People must be educated to appreciate great art. 

Many of the inventions of civilization in common use to-day seemed impossible several 
decades ago. A new style of architecture has been developed through practical necessity; 
the mere balance of dimensions and proportions, walls without columns and windows with- 
out decorations, are entirely satisfactory to our sense of beauty because of their great sim- 
plicity and perfection of spacing. Yet many people think that our wall decorations should 
still belong to a period that flourished centuries ago. Art, as well as our more practical com- 
forts and necessities, must progress to become a useful and integral part of our lives. Artists, 
to fulfill their real purpose in life, must be creators and prophets, leaders to new ideals which 
will bring greater happiness to all. The artists of non-objectivity paint with the religious spirit 
of intuitive creation. 

As our lives become more hurried and crowded with constantly changing impressions 
and sensations, our nerves require a contrast of restfulness and repose at home. People will 
demand even greater simplicity of line in houses and will expect their walls to be light and 
soothing. The only paintings suitable to decorate these walls are those creations whose bal- 
ance of form, line and color harmonize into space and refresh the soul. 

A non-objective picture can be lyrical or dramatic, and creations may be weak or strong. 
When the construction is weak or strong, the creation is weak or strong; but a creation is 
never good or bad. A flower is neither good nor bad; the strong one is the beautiful one 
and the weak one dies out first. That is why creation and art cannot be criticized. Art is like 
the sun, the moon, the rain or the growth of a flower; once it is here it is final and exists in 
spite of all likes or dislikes. The finality of these organic creations is the standard of endur- 
ance by which they can be judged. 

Like a flower, a collection must grow organically and its quality depends on the conse- 
quent development of its idea and purely outlined goal. Painters whose names have been 
boomed by publicity often confuse collectors who lack intuition, foresight and the ability 
to judge real quality. The importance of a collection does not lie in its valuable pictures 
alone, for anyone with great wealth may acquire the most famous ones. The real value of a 
collection lies in its organic growth and selection, expressing the personality of the col- 
lector. A good modern collector will avoid those painters whose ability to surprise is their 
chief value; a surprise only works once. The empty shell of sensational brilliancy and ease 
of workmanship in the pictures of some painters does not grow on one who wishes to live 
with art, expecting development and constant joy from it. Publicity can make such painters 
temporarily famous, but they soon reach the level of their true value. The works of great 
artists do not require publicity. Timeless creations eventually win respect and deference. 

A spiritually gifted collector judges himself with intuitive foresight and his belief is all 

12 



that matters to him; the experience which he receives in living with works of art shapes his 
further demands and builds up organically the unit of his collection. Such collectors are rare 
and outstanding in the history of mankind. Mr. Solomon R. Guggenheim is one of these. 
His career in the field of mining was distinctive for the intuition he exhibited as an explorer 
of the earth, opening up new channels and forging ahead often in spite of predictions of 
failure. With courageous decision and self-reliant foresight he always turned his ventures 
into unusual successes. There is no accident in constant success. His success came through 
the ability to follow a sensitive intuition, the magic leader to achievement and improvement. 
This same intuitive capacity to discover the riches of the earth urged him to explore the 
spiritual world. His collection was made to give diversion, rest, joy and elevation to a crea- 
tive mind in organic accordance with his unusual disposition to explore and love creation. 

Earthly wealth had to be crowned by spiritual wealth to satisfy a man whose vision sur- 
passes that of many other collectors. Even the great collectors of the Renaissance promoted 
art only because they desired a rebirth of the Greek period. But Mr. Guggenheim has rec- 
ognized the spirit of a new epoch leading into the future and proclaiming the unmaterial- 
istic, non-objective age after centuries of materialistic confusion. By subsidizing artists in 
whose development of unforeseen spiritual values he believed almost alone, he has pro- 
tected the safety of their existence and encouraged their new creations by giving them 
further orders. The collectors of the Renaissance also helped to develop their epoch by 
giving orders to artists, but they wished only to bring back the past and not to create a new 
age looking forward toward the future. 

The first public exhibition of the Solomon R. Guggenheim collection of non-objective 
paintings is an outstanding event of lasting importance in the history of art. While 
thousands of museums and private collections are filled to overflowing with objective works 
of old masters and new masters, very few shrines of non-objective art can ever exist be- 
cause non-objective art, being purely creative, is extremely rare, difficult to create, and 
hard to collect. Although we are living in a period contemporary with its creation those 
who have realized its importance have difficulty even to-day in finding masterpieces and 
in choosing wisely. The responsibility for choice is all the more personal and individual 
because no age-old experience of non-objective art has formed an average standard for 
selection. 

The privilege of discovering a genius while he is alive, of realizing values which will 
endure and of acknowledging the greatness of a contemporary period is given to very few. 
These intuitive personalities are so rare that they usually become famous because they ad- 
vance and help others to advance, proclaiming a new spirit and a new period. 

Never before in the history of the world has there been a greater step forward from the 
materialistic to the spiritual than from objectivity to non-objectivity in painting. Because it is 
our destiny to be creative and our fate to become spiritual, humanity will come to develop 
and enjoy greater intuitive power through creations of great art, the glorious masterpieces 
of non-objectivity. 

HILLA REBAY. 








1 RUDOLF BAUER 

Presto (1917-1922) 

Oil on canvas. 59 x 78'/2 



2 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1922) 

Watercolor and tempera. 9x 11 s / 8 

Rebay collection 



3 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1922) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 14%xl0% 

Rebay collection 



4 RUDOLF BAUER 

White Fugue (1922-1927) 

Oil on canvas. 52y 4 x 76V 2 



5 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1923) 

Oil on canvas. 37 x 43/2 



6 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1923) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12 5 / 8 

Rebay collection 



7 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1923) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 9% x 12 

Rebay collection 



8 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1923) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 18 x 11% 

Rebay collection 



9 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1924) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 8y 8 x 12% 

Rebay collection 




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10 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1924) 

Oil on canvas. 35% x 28 



11 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1924) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 1 8Vs x 11% 

Rebay collection 



12 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1924) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 

Rebay collection 



13 RUDOLF BAUER 
Lyrical Picture (1924-1925) 
Oil on canvas. 33'/ 2 x 39 y 4 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 52 



14 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1925) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 12 5 / 8 x 9 



15 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1925) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 20 5 / 8 x 14% 



16 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1925) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 1 7Vs x 12% 









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17 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1925) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 18% x 11 Vi 

Rebay collection 



18 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1925) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17Vsx 12/2 

Rebay collection 



19 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1926) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 

Rebay collection 



20 RUDOLF BAUER 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 13% 
Rebay collection 



21 RUDOLF BAUER 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 12y2x8 5 / 8 
Rebay collection 



22 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1926) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12y 2 

Rebay collection 










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23 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1926) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19 s / 8 x 12% 

Rebay collection 



24 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1926) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19y 2 x 13% 

Rebay collection 



25 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1926-1927) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17/i x 12 5 / 8 

Rebay collection 



26 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1926-1930) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12 5 / 8 

Rebay collection 



27 RUDOLF BAUER 

Scherzo, Tetraptychon (1926-1930) 

Oil on canvas. 51 'A x 51% 



28 RUDOLF BAUER 

Allegro, Tetraptychon (1926-1930) 

Oil on canvas. 51% x 51% 



29 RUDOLF BAUER 

Andante, Tetraptychon (1926-1930) 

Oil on canvas. 51% x 51% 



30 RUDOLF BAUER 

Allegretto, Tetraptychon (1926-1930) 

Oil on canvas. 51% x 51% 



31 RUDOLF BAUER 

Cosmic Pleasures (1927) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 18% x liy 8 

Rebay collection 




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32 RUDOLF BAUER 

In Memory (1927) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 9 7 / e x 12% 

Rebay collection 



33 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1927) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 

Rebay collection 



34 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1927) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 12% * 8/2 

Rebay collection 



23 



35 RUDOLF BAUER 

Light and Heavy (1928) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 1 2y 2 



36 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1928) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12y 2 

Rebay collection 



37 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1928) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 18 5 / 8 x 12% 

Rebay collection 








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38 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1928) 

Watercolor, tempera, Chinese ink and paper. 20y 2 x 14% 

Rebay collection 



39 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1929) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12/2 

Rebay collection 



40 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1929) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 18% x 11% 



41 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1929) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12 n / 2 

Rebay collection 



42 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1930-1932) 

Oil on canvas. 51% x 51% 



43 RUDOLF BAUER 
Red Circle (1930-1932) 
Oil on canvas. 51% x 51% 



44 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1930-1932) 

Oil on canvas. 51% x51% 






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45 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1930-1932) 

Oil on canvas. 51% x51% 

Rebay collection 



46 RUDOLF BAUER 

Triptych (1930-1934) 

Oil on canvas. 51 'A x 61 



47 RUDOLF BAUER 

Triptych (1930-1934) 

Oil on canvas. 51% x 61 



48 RUDOLF BAUER 

Triptych (1930-1934) 

Oil on canvas. 51/4x61 



49 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1931) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 



50 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1931) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 



51 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1931) 

Watercolor. 17%xl2y 2 



52 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1931) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17'/ 8 x 12y 2 




SEE PLATE ON PAGE 56 



53 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1932) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 13 5 / 8 x 18y 8 

Rebay collection 




54 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1933) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 15% x 19'/ 8 

Rebay collection 




55 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1933) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 13V2 

Rebay collection 




SEE PLATE ON PAGE 



56 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1933) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 18'/ 2 x 17'/ 2 



57 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1934-1935) 

Oil on canvas. 50% x 50% 




58 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1935) 

Oil on canvas. 50% x 50% 



59 RUDOLF BAUER 
"Buntes Kreisen" (1935) 
Oil on canvas. 50% x 60% 



60 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1935) 

Oil on canvas. 53% x 35% 



61 RUDOLF BAUER 
"Black and Yellow" (1935) 
Oil on canvas. 50% x 50% 



62 ALBERT GLEIZES 

(1921) 

Oil on canvas. 35 x 27% 

Rebay collection 



63 ALBERT GLEIZES 
"Voltige Aerienne" (1917) 
Oil on canvas. 39 3 / 8 x 29% 




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SEE PLATE ON PAGE 55 




SEE PLATE ON PAGE 51 






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SEE PLATE ON PAGE 53 



64 ALBERT GLEIZES 

(1927) 

Tempera. 6 x 4V 2 

Rebay collection 



65 ALBERT GLEIZES 

(1927) 

Tempera. 6/2 x 5 

Rebay collection 



66 ALBERT GLEIZES 
Religious Painting (1929) 
Oil on canvas. 78/2 x 60 



67 VASILY KANDINSKY 

The White Edge (1913) 

Oil on canvas. 55 x 75'/2 



68 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Light Picture (1913) 

Oil on canvas. 30% x 39% 

69 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Black Lines (1913) 

Oil on canvas. 50 y 2 x 50y 2 



70 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Picture with Three Spots (No. 196, 1913) 

Oil on canvas. 47 x 43. 



71 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Lyrical Invention (1918) 

Tempera and Chinese ink. 10y 8 x 13y 2 

Rebay collection 



72 VASILY KANDINSKY 

(1918) 

Watercolor. 9%x13y 2 

Rebay collection 



73 VASILY KANDINSKY 

(1922) 

Watercolor. 17% x 15 3 / 4 



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(1922) 

Watercolor. 17%x 16'/ 8 





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75 VASILY KANDINSKY 

(1923) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 14y 8 x9% 

Rebay collection 



76 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Composition 8 (No. 260, 1923) 

Oil on canvas. 54/2 * 78/2 

77 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Emphasized Corners (No. 247, 1923) 

Oil on canvas. 50 3 / 4 x 50 3 / 4 
Rebay collection 



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78 VASILY KANDINSKY 

(1923) 

Watercolor and ink. 16 x 12 

Rebay collection 



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79 VASILY KANDINSKY 

(1924) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 13V2 x 9 5 / 8 

Rebay collection 



80 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Light Unity (No. 308, 1925) 
Oil on cardboard. 27y 2 x 19'/ 2 

81 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Pointed and Round (No. 293, 1925) 
Oil on cardboard. 27'/ 2 x 19 3 / 4 



82 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Pointed Accents (No. 342, 1926) 
Oil on canvas. 30% x 49 



83 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Confirming (No. 355, 1926) 
Oil on canvas. 17% x 21 




SEE PLATE ON PAGE 45 





84 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Floating (No. 395, 1927) 

Oil on cardboard. 15 3 / 4 x 18% 




SEE PLATE ON PAGE 58 



85 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Glowing Up (No. 327, 1928) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 18 x 19% 



6 VASILY KANDINSKY 

"Schichtenweise" (1928) 

Watercolor. 19y 8 xl2 s / 8 

Rebay collection 




87 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Light and Heavy (No. 457, 1929) 

Oil on cardboard. 19>/ 4 x 19% 



88 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Light Blue (No. 443, 1929) 

Oil on canvas. 20% x 26% 



89 VASILY KANDINSKY 
(No. 456, 1929) 

Oil on cardboard. 13% x 9% 
Rebay collection 



90 VASILY KANDINSKY 

For and Against (No. 461, 1929) 

Oil on cardboard. 13% x 19% 



91 VASILY KANDINSKY 
"Kaum" (No. 492, 1930) 
Tempera on plaster. 13x6% 
Rebay collection 



92 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Accompanied Contrasts (No. 613, 1935) 
Oil with sand on canvas. 38% x 64 







93 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Little Balls (No. 555, 1935) 

Watercolor. 18x9 




94 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Voltage (No. 612, 1935) 

Oil with sand on canvas. 32 x 39 



95 PAUL KLEE 

Inscription (1926) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 8% x 5% 

Rebay collection 



96 FERNAND LEGER 

Composition (1925) 

Oil on canvas. 50y 2 x 37'/ 2 



97 FERNAND LEGER 

(1930) 

Watercolor. 13% x 16V 2 

Rebay collection 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 57 



98 LADISLAUS MOHOLY-NAGY 

Tl (1926) 

Oil on Trollit. 58y 2 x 17 



99 LADISLAUS MOHOLY-NAGY 

(1927) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 11 x 15/2 

Rebay collection 



100 LADISLAUS MOHOLY-NAGY 

Tp3 (1930) 

Oil on Trollit. 5 5 / 8 x 1 1 y 4 

Rebay collection 








101 LADISLAUS MOHOLY-NAGY 
Tp2 (1930) 
Oil on Trollit. 56 3 / 4 x 24 



102 LADISLAUS MOHOLY-NAGY 

Tpl (1930) 

Oil on Trollit. 56 3 / 4 x 24 



103 HILLA REBAY 
Improvisation (1922) 
Paper and watercolor. Il 3 / 8 x8% 




104 HILLA REBAY 

Scherzo (1924) 

Paper and watercolor. W/a x 8% 




105 HILLA REBAY 
Fugue (1934) 
Watercolor. 10 7 / 8 * 13% 




39 






106 HILLA REBAY 

(1931) 

Paper and watercolor. 9% x 8% 



107 EDWARD WADSWORTH 

Composition (1930) 

Tempera on cardboard. 24% x 39% 



108 EDWARD WADSWORTH 

Composition (1930) 

Tempera on cardboard. 24% x 34% 



PAINTINGS WITH AN OBJECT 



109 MARC CHAGALL 
I and the Village (1911) 
Watercolor. 1 1 % x 8% 
Rebay collection 



119 AMEDEO MODIGLIANI 

The Yellow Sweater 

Oil on canvas. 25'/ 2 x 36% 



110 MARC CHAGALL 

Paris through the Window (1913) 

Oil on canvas. 52% x 54% 



120 AMEDEO MODIGLIANI 
Portrait of Beatrice Hastings 
Drawing. 12 x 7% 
Rebay collection 



111 MARC CHAGALL 

Country Fete, 

Illustration for "The Fables of La Fontaine" 

(1930-1932) 

Gouache. 19% x 24% 



112 ROBERT DELAUNAY 

Eiffel Tower (1910) 

Oil on canvas. 77% x 53 



113 ALBERT GLEIZES 

(1916) 

Oil on canvas. 39% x 29% 



121 HILLA REBAY 

Relaxation (1924) 

Paper and watercolor. 16% x 13% 



122 HILLA REBAY 
The Tiger Cat (1933) 
Paper. 16% x 13y 8 



123 HILLA REBAY 
Fish (1934) 
Paper. 17% x 13% 
Rebay collection 



114 ALBERT GLEIZES 
Three Themes (1916) 
Tempera. 7% x 5 5 / 8 



124 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 
"Troupier au Pliant" (1881-1882) 
Drawing. 6% x 4% 
Rebay collection 



115 PAUL KLEE 
Lightning (1920) 
Watercolor. Iiy 2 x7% 



125 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 

(1885) 

Drawing. Il%x9 



116 PAUL KLEE 

The End of the Marionette (1927) 

Watercolor and ink. 12%xl8 



126 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 

(1887) 

Drawing. 8% x 1 1 % 



117 PAUL KLEE 
"Erinneraedchen" (1929) 
Watercolor and ink. 12x14% 



127 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 
Drawing. 9% x 12% 



118 AMEDEO MODIGLIANI 
The Boy in the Blue Vest 
Oil on canvas. 36%. x 24% 



128 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 
Peasant Woman (c. 1883) 
Oil on canvas. 15 x 18 



BIOGRAPHIES 

BAUER, Rudolph. Born in Lindenwald, Germany, 1889. At the age of twelve he worked as 
a cartoonist. For a short time he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Berlin. He began his 
career as a designer of humourous publications. Later he became prominent for his carica- 
tures and for his work in Academism, Impressionism, Expressionism and Cubism, finally de- 
veloping to the futuristic art of non-objectivity of which he is an outstanding exponent. His 
paintings were exhibited in the Glasspalast, Berlin, 1915-1919. He exhibited as a member of 
the "Sturm" and in Japan, Sweden, Italy and Switzerland and many other countries, 1915- 
1921, later in the Kgl. Schloss, Berlin, in 1927. He founded the Geistreich, a private museum of 
non-objectivity in Berlin. Bauer has lectured in several German universities and museums, and 
for the "Volks Buehne," Berlin. He lately refused invitations for one-man exhibitions in Rome 
and Milan, to be sponsored by Marinetti, in Vienna and in Paris. He is the author of "Die 
Kosmische Bewegung" in "Expressionismus die Kunstwende," Berlin, 1918; "Manifest der 
Malerei," Berlin, 1921; "Das Geistreich," Berlin, 1931; and "Eppur si muove," Berlin, 1935. 
He lives in Berlin. 

CHAGALL, Marc. Born in Vitebsk, Russia, 1887. He first began painting in 1907, studying 
under Bakst in Saint Petersburg. He came to Paris in 1910, where he exhibited in the Salon 
des Independents, 1911-1914. In 1913 he executed a mural painting for the Jewish theatre in 
Moscow. His first one-man show was organized by the "Sturm" in Berlin, during the spring of 
1914. In the same year he returned to Russia, living there until 1922. He founded the Beaux Arts 
School in Vitebsk. He returned to Paris in 1919. His paintings were recently exhibited in Basel, 
Switzerland, in 1931, and in London in 1935, in important one-man exhibitions. Among the 
books he has illustrated are "Dead Souls", by Gogol, and "The Fables of la Fontaine" 
(Editions Vollard). He lives in Paris. 

DELAUNAY, Robert. Born in Paris, 1882. His paintings first were exhibited in the Salon des 
Independents in 1908. He took an important part in the Cubist movement and again exhibited 
with the Independents in 1911. His first abstract pictures, the "Eiffel Tower" and "St. Severin, 
were painted in 1910; "Les Fenetres," in 1912. His illustrations for books include those for the 
poems of Apollinaire and of Blaise Cendrars, "Transsiberian," by B. Huidobro, and "Alio, 
Paris!", by Joseph Delteil (Editions des Quatre Chemins). He lives in Paris where he now is de- 
veloping non-objective paintings. 

GLEIZES, Albert. Born in Paris, 1881. His paintings have been exhibited in Paris at the Societe 
Nationale des Beaux Arts in 1902 and 1907; at the Salon d'Automne in 1903, 1905 and 
1910; at the Salon des Independents since 1909; and at the Salon des Tuileries since its 
founding. He took part in the first Cubistic movement in 1911 and was one of the founders 
of the Salon de la Section d'Or in 1912, as well as a prominent member of the "Sturm," Ber- 
lin. Since 1914 most of his paintings can be termed abstroct. Gleizes is also a lecturer 
and writer. His published works include: "Du Cubisme", in collaboration with Jean Metz- 

42 



inger, Paris, 1912; "Du Cubisme et des moyens de le comprendre", Paris, 1920; "La Mission 
creatrice de I'Homme dans le domaine plastique", Paris, 1922; and "Vers une conscience 
plastique", articles and lectures from 1911 to 1925, Paris, 1926. He has illustrated "Le Bocage 
amoureux", by Roger Allard; "La Conque miraculeuse", by Alexander Mercereau; and "Au 
pays du muftie", by Laurent Tailhade. He lives in Moly Sabata, France. 

KANDINSKY, Vasily. Born in Moscow, Russia, 1886. When he was eighteen he graduated in 
law and economics and was asked to teach at the University of Dorpat. Instead of accept- 
ing he went to Munich to study art at the Azbe School, later studying with Stuck. From 1902 
to 1903 he conducted an art school and then traveled until 1908. He lived in Munich until 
1912. His first abstract painting was completed in 1911. In 1912 he founded the group of 
"Blauer Reiter" and published a book of the same title. He painted his scenic composition, "Le 
Son jaune", in 1912 and "Klaenge" in 1913. His works were exhibited in the Berlin "Automne 
Salon" in 1914 and in the "Sturm", Berlin, 1913-1918. He returned to Russia in 1918. He was a 
professor at the Beaux Arts School and director of the museum of Pictorial Culture at 
Moscow in 1919. He established the Institute of Artistic Culture and was a professor at the 
University of Moscow in 1920. In 1921 he founded the Russian Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
He returned to Germany as a teacher at the Bauhaus in Weimar in 1922, later teaching at 
Dessau until 1933. His books include: "Uber das Geistige in der Kunst", Munich, 1912, Eng- 
lish edition, London, 1914; "Der Blaue Reiter", edited by Kandinsky and Franz Marc, Munich, 
1912; "Kandinsky, 1901-1913", Berlin, 1913; "Kleine Welten", Berlin, 1922; and "Punkt und 
Linie zu Flaeche", Munich, 1926. He lives in Paris. 

KLEE, Paul. Born in Berne, Switzerland, 1879. He studied at the Academy of Munich with 
Franz Stuck in 1898. He traveled through Italy and then made his home in Berne from 1903 
until 1906. His first exhibit, shown in 1910, was unsuccessful, but later he attracted great atten- 
tion in the exhibition of "Blauer Reiter", of which he was a member in 1912 and at the 
"Automne Salon" in Berlin, 1913. He also exhibited as a member of the "Sturm." In 1919 he 
was a teacher at Bauhaus in Weimar, and later at Dessau until 1932. He lives in Switzerland. 

LEGER, Fernand. Born in Argentan, France, 1881. For a short time he studied architecture at 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1901. He worked at first as an architectural draftsman and a 
photographic retoucher. Then he began painting and, although influenced by the works of 
Cezanne, Rousseau and the Cubist movement, he developed a very strong style of abstrac- 
tion, using a subject and only occasionally painting non-objective creations. His paintings 
were first exhibited at the Berlin "Automne Salon", 1914, and later at the "Sturm", Berlin, 1914- 
1919. He designed settings for "Skating Rink" and "Birth of the World", and for the Swedish 
ballets organized by Rolf de Mare and Jean Borlin. He now directs an art school with A. 
Ozenfant. He had a one-man exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1935. He 
lives in Paris. 



MODIGLIANI, Amedeo. Born in Livorno, Italy, 1884, died in Paris, 1920. He was both a 
painter and a sculptor. After studying the old masters in Naples, Florence and Venice, he 
arrived in Paris in 1905. His work was exhibited at the Salon des Independents in 1908-1910, 
and at the Salon d'Automne, Paris, 1919-1920. He was influenced by the Italian Primitives and 
the sculpture of the Ivory Coast. Many of his portraits were of his friends. His life in Paris was 
one of poverty, illness and disillusionment. He died of consumption at the age of thirty-five. 

MOHOLY-NAGY, Ladislaus. Born in Hungary, 1895. From his legal studies he turned to 
painting about 1915, and since then has been identified with the development of non- 
objective painting in Europe. He was a member of the staff of the Bauhaus at Weimar, 
and later he was at Dessau with Cropius. In 1929 he went to Berlin where he worked in 
abstract films, stage settings, photography, writing and painting. His paintings have been 
exhibited in Berlin and Paris. His writings include "Malerei, Fotographie, Film," Munich, 1925; 
"The New Vision," New York, 1933; and "Sonderausgabe der Zeitschrift Telehor," 1935. He 
lives in London. 

REBAY von Ehrenwiesen, Hilla. Born at Strassburg, Alsace. She studied at Duesseldorf, the 
Paris Academy and the Munich Academy. Her paintings were exhibited at the Wallraf 
Museum in Cologne in 1913; at the Secession in Munich, 1914-1915; at the Salon des Inde- 
pendents in Paris in 1913; at the Freie Secession in Berlin, 1915; and at the "Sturm" in 1917. 
She was a member ov the November Gruppe in 1918. Exhibited at the Salon des Tuileries 
and Salon d'Automne, Paris, 1932-1933. She has also exhibited her paintings in several 
American museums and galleries, also in Italy and Switzerland. Her work has developed 
from portrait painting through Impressionism, Expressionism and Cubism to non-objective 
painting. She is also known for her paper plastic pictures, and is a lecturer and writer on 
art. She lives in New York. 

SEURAT, Georges-Pierre. Born in Paris, 1859, died, 1891. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts from 1875 to 1880. He painted in Paris from 1880 until his death. An indefatigable 
worker, he only sold one painting during his lifetime. Not until years after his death was 
his work appreciated. With Paul Signac, he founded Neo-lmpressionism. He invented the 
scientific application of primary colors in small dots. He was a forerunner of abstract paint- 
ing. He died at the age of thirty-one. 

WADSWORTH, Edward. Born in Cheakheaton, England, 1889. When Cubism appeared in 
England in 1910 he was prepared to understand and appreciate it. Familiar with machinery, 
he recognized that its forms had a distinct beauty. He made his debut in the Vorticist move- 
ment started by Wyndham Lewis, the first to import Cubism into England. His first one-man 
show was at the Leiscester Galleries in 1919. He is a member of "Unit One," a group of eleven 
English artists with mutual sympathies. He lives in England. 




VASILY KANDINSKY. No. 81"POINTED AND ROUND" 




VASILY KANDINSKY. No. 69 "BLACK LINES" 




RUDOLF BAUER, No. 27 "SCHERZO" 



40 




ALBERT GLEIZES, No. 63 




RUDOLF BAUER, No. 13 



52 




VASILY KANDINSKY, No. 67 "THE WHITE EDGE' 




VASILY KANDINSKY, No. 77 




RUDOLF BAUER, No. 61 




RUDOLF BAUER, No. 52 



56 




FERNAND LEGER, No. 96 





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VASILY KANDINSKY, No. 86 



National Representatives for the publications of the Carolina Art Association 
MELRICH V. ROSENBERG COMPANY, 386 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY 



COPYRIGHT, 1936, BY CAROLINA ART ASSOCIATION, CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA 
PRINTED IN THE U. S. A. BY THE BRADFORD PRESS, INC., NEW YORK